ANZCA Final Exam Resources
Past Questions

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SAQs

Past SAQs
2
Exam
Title
Stem
Categories
Pass Rate
Status
Model Answer
2023.2
15
Question 1
Evaluate the use of long-acting opioids in the treatment of acute pain.
Pain Medicine
51.1%
Not Started
Question 2
Describe a perioperative pathway for hip replacement surgery with an expected in-hospital length of stay of less than 24 hours.
Perioperative Medicine
SSU: Orthopaedic Surgery
60.0%
Not Started
Question 3
Discuss the management of a patient with life-threatening haemorrhage from major pelvic trauma.
Resuscitation Trauma and Crisis Management
SSU: Orthopaedic Surgery
63.9%
Not Started
Question 4
Evaluate the usage of the pulmonary artery catheter in anaesthesia.
Perioperative Medicine
SSU: Cardiac Surgery and Interventional Cardiology
62.2%
Not Started
Question 5
Evaluate the use of each of the following for preoperative cardiac risk stratification:
plasma biomarkers (chose ONE of natriuretic peptides OR troponin)
Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) stair-climbing test
cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX/CPET)
65.0%
Not Started
Question 6
Outline the treatment strategies for chronic heart failure.
75.5%
Not Started
Question 7
List the clinical features that suggest a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism under general anaesthesia. (30%)
Outline your immediate management of intraoperative pulmonary embolism. (70%)
80.0%
Not Started
Question 8
Discuss the elements of perioperative management that improve outcomes in patients undergoing emergency laparotomy.
51.7%
Not Started
Question 9
Outline your preoperative assessment of a 1-year-old patient requiring a ventriculoperitoneal shunt revision.
51.1%
Not Started
Question 10
Discuss the potential benefits and risks of supranormal oxygen levels in the perioperative setting.
75.0%
Not Started
Question 11
Outline the sensory innervation of the hip. (30%)
Describe one motor-sparing regional anaesthesia technique to provide analgesia to a patient undergoing surgery for a fractured neck of femur. (70%)
71.7%
Not Started
Question 12
Describe the benefits and limitations of meta-analyses.
28.3%
Not Started
Question 13
Discuss the perioperative management of a patient undergoing urgent thyroidectomy following failed medical therapy for thyrotoxicosis.
63.3%
Not Started
Question 14
You have been called to the emergency department to see a patient with a post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage.
Discuss your initial assessment and management of this patient (50%).
Describe your anaesthesia management for the return to theatre for exploration of haemorrhage (50%).
87.2%
Not Started
Question 15
Discuss the potential complications associated with hysteroscopy and their anaesthetic management.
21.1%
Not Started
2023.1
15
Question 1
List the branches of the coronary arteries and the myocardial territories and structures they supply. Outline the ECG leads that correspond to the blood supply. Describe the ECG changes in a NSTEMI.
SSU: Cardiac Surgery and Interventional Cardiology
Perioperative Medicine
48.9%
Complete
Question 2
Outline the immediate management of an unconscious trauma patient in the ED who has a suspected cervical spine injury.
Resuscitation Trauma and Crisis Management
65.5%
Not Started
Question 3
A 30 yo pt is scheduled for laser resection of a subglottic mass to relieve mild stridor. Justify your intraoperative anaesthetic management of this case.
SSU: Head and Neck ENT Dental Surgery and ECT
74.0%
Not Started
Question 4
Discuss the periop management of a previously well pt presenting for transsphenoidal resection of a non-secretory pituitary macroadenoma.
SSU: Neurosurgery and Neuroradiology
25.6%
Incomplete
Question 5
An 82 yo patient is booked for excision of a floor of mouth squamous cell carcinoma and neck dissection, with a radial forearm free flap reconstruction. Discuss the issues relevant to the intraop anaesthetic management for this procedure.
SSU: Head and Neck ENT Dental Surgery and ECT
Perioperative Medicine
62.8%
Not Started
Question 6
Discuss the implications of anticoagulation as well as an appropriate anticoagulant management strategy for a 25 yo with a mechanical valve for the duration of pregnancy, delivery and the postpartum period.
SSU: Obstetric Anaesthesia and Analgesia
43.9%
Incomplete
Question 7
Describe your technique to provide caudal epidural analgesia for an infant weighing 10kg undergoing hypospadias surgery.
Regional and Local Anaesthesia
SSU: Paediatric Anaesthesia
43.9%
Not Started
Question 8
A 56 yo patient with a phaeochromocytoma is scheduled for a lap adrenalectomy. Justify your preop investigations for this patient (30%).
Discuss your goals for preop optimization and how to achieve them (70%).
Perioperative Medicine
SSU: General Surgical Urological Gynaecological and Endoscopic Procedures
78.9%
Complete
Question 9
Justify strategies used to mitigate postop delirium in an elderly patient requiring hip fracture fixation.
SSU: Orthopaedic Surgery
General Anaesthesia and Sedation
65.9%
Complete
Question 10
Describe the innervation relevant to the stages of labour (30%). Evaluate the regional analgesia options for each stage (70%).
SSU: Obstetric Anaesthesia and Analgesia
60.1%
Complete
Question 11
Outline the major considerations for organ donation after circulatory death (DCD).
SSU: Intensive Care
51.6%
Incomplete
Question 12
Outline the circumstances where the dosing of paracetamol requires modification (50%). Describe the management principles of paracetamol toxicity (50%).
Resuscitation Trauma and Crisis Management
Pain Medicine
56.1%
Complete
Question 13
Data regarding the conduct and outcomes of anaesthesia are now widely collected eg National Anaesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry (NACOR). Outline the benefits and the potential errors that can occur when using this data for research.
Safety and Quality in Anaesthetic Practice
44.4%
Not Started
Question 14
Discuss the preoperative elements of an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) program for a patient requiring major colorectal surgery.
Perioperative Medicine
SSU: General Surgical Urological Gynaecological and Endoscopic Procedures
62.3%
Complete
Question 15
Identify the axes A and B (with units), and the points labelled C through H on the following spirometry loop:
image.png
Outline how these spirometry parameters change in:
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Extrathoracic tracheal obstruction
Perioperative Medicine
75.8%
Complete
2022.2
15
Question 1
Evaluate the methods for detection of myocardial ischaemia in the anaesthetised patient.

General Anaesthesia and Sedation
SSU: Cardiac Surgery and Interventional Cardiology
45.3%
Complete
Question 2
Discuss the intraoperative and postoperative pain management of a trauma patient who requires a semi- elective below knee amputation for an isolated injury.
General Anaesthesia and Sedation
Pain Medicine
SSU: Vascular Surgery and Interventional Radiology
77.3%
Complete
Question 3
Discuss the perioperative management of a patient requiring clot retrieval for an acute ischaemic stroke.
SSU: Neurosurgery and Neuroradiology
33.3%
Complete
Question 4
You are asked to review a 32-year-old G1P1 woman complaining of right leg weakness the day after an instrumental vaginal birth of a 4.2 kg baby under epidural analgesia.
Describe your assessment of the patient and management of the likely differential diagnoses.
SSU: Obstetric Anaesthesia and Analgesia
80.7%
Complete
Question 5
A 56-year-old male with haemophilia A is scheduled to undergo a total knee replacement. Describe the pathogenesis of haemophilia A and its complications. (50%) Discuss how the presence of haemophilia A influences your perioperative management of this patient. (50%)
Perioperative Medicine
60.0%
Complete
Question 6
Justify the ongoing clinical use of nitrous oxide and ENTONOX. (50%)
Discuss how the environmental impact of their use can be minimised. (50%)
Safety and Quality in Anaesthetic Practice
ANZCA Roles in Practice
55.3%
Complete
Question 7
Describe the anatomy relevant to performing an adductor canal block. (50%) Outline the indications, limitations, and technique of performing an adductor canal block. (50%)
Regional and Local Anaesthesia
72.0%
Complete
Question 8
A patient presenting for surgery has a DDDR pacemaker. a) Explain the NASPE/BPEG Generic (NBG) pacemaker classification system. b) Describe the assessment and preoperative management of this DDDR device.
*NASPE/BPEG - North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology/British Pacing and Electrophysiology Group.
Perioperative Medicine
SSU: Cardiac Surgery and Interventional Cardiology
73.3%
Complete
Question 9
Discuss the intraoperative considerations for a patient undergoing a pneumonectomy.
SSU: Thoracic Surgery
34.7%
Not Started
Question 10
Discuss the use of ultrasound during the initial presentation of a patient with major trauma.
Resuscitation Trauma and Crisis Management
62.7%
Not Started
Question 11
A 75-year-old man presents with an acute dissection of the descending thoracic aorta. His blood pressure measures 190/110 mmHg. Justify your plan for his preoperative blood pressure management. (30%) Describe the potential complications of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) and how you would mitigate them. (70%)
SSU: Vascular Surgery and Interventional Radiology
37.3%
Not Started
Question 12
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the use of neuromuscular blocking drugs in a patient admitted to the intensive care unit.
SSU: Intensive Care
48.0%
Not Started
Question 13
Compare the algorithms for advanced life support of adults and term newborns and explain the rationale for the differences.
Resuscitation Trauma and Crisis Management
SSU: Paediatric Anaesthesia
74.7%
Complete
Question 14
A patient has undergone an eight-hour elective cervical spine fusion involving both anterior and posterior approaches. Outline your approach to the extubation of this patient.
SSU: Neurosurgery and Neuroradiology
56.0%
Not Started
Question 15
The following is the venous blood gas (VBG) result of a five-week-old infant with pyloric stenosis.
Interpret this VBG. Describe your preoperative resuscitation and justify your criteria for proceeding to surgery.
SSU: Paediatric Anaesthesia
70.7%
Not Started
2022.1
15
Question 1
Describe your preoperative assessment of a patient with oesophageal cancer scheduled for an oesophagectomy and justify your strategy to optimise them before surgery.
Perioperative Medicine
SSU: General Surgical Urological Gynaecological and Endoscopic Procedures
64.1%
Complete
Question 2
Outline your management of a patient with chronic daily headache.
Perioperative Medicine
79.0%
Not Started
Question 3
The following are the arterial blood gas (ABG) results of a patient with chronic liver disease:
Interpret this ABG.
List the causes of hypoxia in patients with chronic liver disease.
Describe how you would differentiate between the causes of hypoxia in patients with chronic liver disease.
Perioperative Medicine
SSU: Intensive Care
31.3%
Not Started
Question 4
Describe the factors that ensure the safety and quality of a ward-based postoperative epidural analgesia service.
Safety and Quality in Anaesthetic Practice
45.6%
Not Started
Question 5
Describe a technique for front of neck access to the airway in a ‘Can’t Intubate, Can’t Oxygenate’ situation. (50%)
Outline the potential complications and limitations of this technique. (50%)
Airway Management
86.7%
Not Started
Question 6
A patient with primary pulmonary hypertension is scheduled for laparoscopic bowel resection.
Their current medication is bosentan PO 125mg bd.
Discuss how their condition influences your perioperative management.
Perioperative Medicine
54.9%
Not Started
Question 7
An 80-year-old man is in the post anaesthesia care unit (PACU) following a transurethral resection of prostate under spinal anaesthesia.
He is restless, saturating poorly on air and refusing to keep an oxygen mask on. List the likely differential diagnoses and describe your management.
Perioperative Medicine
SSU: General Surgical Urological Gynaecological and Endoscopic Procedures
37.9%
Not Started
Question 8
image.png
Identify the points labelled A to F on this intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) pressure-time trace at the commencement of 1:2 augmentation. (30%)
Outline the aims of IABP placement and discuss the underlying physiological principles. (70%)
SSU: General Surgical Urological Gynaecological and Endoscopic Procedures
49.7%
Not Started
Question 9
Discuss how pregnancy influences your perioperative management of a patient at 25 weeks gestation scheduled for laparoscopic appendicectomy.
SSU: Obstetric Anaesthesia and Analgesia
49.7%
Not Started
Question 10
Describe your response to a formal complaint made by a patient about you to your head of department.
Safety and Quality in Anaesthetic Practice
83.6%
Not Started
Question 11
Discuss the perioperative management of a patient on haemodialysis who is to undergo a renal transplant.
SSU: General Surgical Urological Gynaecological and Endoscopic Procedures
39.0%
Not Started
Question 12
A patient with Type 1 diabetes mellitus is scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Outline your perioperative management of their diabetes.
Perioperative Medicine
33.3%
Not Started
Question 13
Describe the sensory and motor innervation of the airway relevant for topicalisation for an awake nasal fibreoptic intubation.
Airway Management
37.9%
Not Started
Question 14
Discuss the safety precautions and equipment requirements for providing anaesthesia in the MRI suite.
Safety and Quality in Anaesthetic Practice
41.0%
Not Started
Question 15
Justify your perioperative management plan of a six-year-old child with a penetrating eye injury.
SSU: Ophthalmic Procedures
SSU: Paediatric Anaesthesia
43.1%
Not Started
2021.2
15
Question 1
Define the terms ‘train-of-four’ (TOF) and ‘double burst stimulation’ (DBS) with respect to a peripheral nerve stimulator (PNS). (30%)
Evaluate the use of a quantitative peripheral nerve stimulator when using neuromuscular blocking agents in anaesthetic practice. (70%)
General Anaesthesia and Sedation
Safety and Quality in Anaesthetic Practice
64.9%
Not Started
Question 2
A patient is admitted to hospital following a diagnosis of intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) at 35 weeks gestation. Discuss your considerations for the anaesthetic management of her labour and delivery.
General Anaesthesia and Sedation
SSU: Obstetric Anaesthesia and Analgesia
59.1%
Not Started
Question 3
You have just intubated a patient who has respiratory failure due to severe bacterial pneumonia. They remain hypoxaemic with an SpO2 of 82%.
Describe your immediate actions and justify your strategies to improve oxygenation whilst awaiting the patient’s retrieval to a tertiary centre.
Resuscitation Trauma and Crisis Management
83.6%
Not Started
Question 4
Describe the clinical presentation of venous carbon dioxide embolism during laparoscopic surgery and outline your management.
General Anaesthesia and Sedation
Resuscitation Trauma and Crisis Management
64.3%
Not Started
Question 5
Justify your strategies for managing severely elevated intracranial pressure.
SSU: Neurosurgery and Neuroradiology
Resuscitation Trauma and Crisis Management
86.5%
Complete
Question 6
Discuss the perioperative strategies you would use to mitigate the risks of prolonged surgery in the prone position.
General Anaesthesia and Sedation
Safety and Quality in Anaesthetic Practice
55.6%
Not Started
Question 7
An adult is brought to your district hospital after a house fire. They have sustained burns to 75% of their total body surface area (TBSA).
Discuss your management prior to their transfer to a Burns Unit.
Resuscitation Trauma and Crisis Management
SSU: Plastic Reconstructive and Burns Surgery
59.6%
Complete
Question 8
Discuss how a diagnosis of Addison’s disease would influence your perioperative management of a patient who requires an urgent laparotomy for bowel obstruction.
Perioperative Medicine
General Anaesthesia and Sedation
49.1%
Not Started
Question 9
Describe the elements of informed consent for anaesthesia. (50%)
Discuss the informed consent process in the context of the following clinical situations: (50%)
A 20-year-old primigravida in late first stage of labour requests epidural analgesia.
A 15-year-old is scheduled for posterior spinal instrumentation for severe idiopathic scoliosis.
Perioperative Medicine
ANZCA Roles in Practice
63.2%
Not Started
Question 10
A 60-year-old patient is scheduled for stenting of a tracheobronchial mass. Outline your perioperative management.
SSU: Head and Neck ENT Dental Surgery and ECT
59.1%
Incomplete
Question 11
A 14-year-old with severe autism is rescheduled for dental surgery. The operation was previously abandoned due to their poor cooperation with the team.
Justify your perioperative management plan.
General Anaesthesia and Sedation
SSU: Paediatric Anaesthesia
70.2%
Not Started
Question 12
Describe the nerve supply to the breast. (30%)
Describe an appropriate regional technique to provide perioperative analgesia for a patient undergoing a total mastectomy and justify your choice. (70%)
Regional and Local Anaesthesia
73.7%
Not Started
Question 13
A 55-year-old patient with atrial fibrillation (AF) requires general anaesthesia in the cardiac catheter laboratory for electrophysiological (EP) study and catheter ablation.
Discuss the principles of remote location anaesthesia relevant to this case.
SSU: Cardiac Surgery and Interventional Cardiology
53.8%
Not Started
Question 14
Discuss the principles of damage control resuscitation in severe trauma.
Resuscitation Trauma and Crisis Management
73.1%
Not Started
Question 15
Outline the clinical features, differential diagnoses, and management of serotonin syndrome in the perioperative period.
Perioperative Medicine
Resuscitation Trauma and Crisis Management
SSU: Intensive Care
70.2%
Complete
2021.1
15
Question 1
Outline the anatomy relevant to performing a brachial plexus block using the axillary approach. (70%)
Describe the limitations of this block when used for upper limb surgery. (30%)
Regional and Local Anaesthesia
58.2%
Not Started
Question 2
Explain your strategies to minimise the risk of hypoxia during induction, maintenance and emergence from anaesthesia in a morbidly obese patient undergoing a laparoscopic total hysterectomy.

General Anaesthesia and Sedation
SSU: General Surgical Urological Gynaecological and Endoscopic Procedures
Airway Management
72.4%
Not Started
Question 3
In a large clinical trial, patients were randomised into two groups to study the impact of bispectral index (BISTM) monitoring on the incidence of awareness.
The table below shows the results.
Data analysis found that the statistical difference in the incidence of awareness had a p value of 0.022.
The study reported that BIS-guided anaesthesia reduced the risk of awareness by 82% (95% confidence interval 17-98%) with an odds ratio of 0.2 and a number needed to treat of 140.
Define the following terms and explain their meaning in relation to this study:
p value
risk reduction
confidence interval
odds ratio
number needed to treat

Safety and Quality in Anaesthetic Practice
85.2%
Not Started
Question 4
A 24-year-old woman requires urgent manual removal of placenta due to ongoing bleeding following a vaginal delivery (estimated blood loss 1500ml).
Outline your initial management prior to her arrival in theatre. (50%)
Discuss the options available for managing persistent uterine atony in theatre. (50%)
General Anaesthesia and Sedation
Perioperative Medicine
Resuscitation Trauma and Crisis Management
SSU: Obstetric Anaesthesia and Analgesia
69.4%
Complete
Question 5
This is the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) of a 56-year-old man in the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) two hours after an emergency laparotomy for bowel obstruction.
He is complaining of shortness of breath, abdominal pain and has a blood pressure of 160/110mmHg.
image.png
He has a history of hypertension controlled with atenolol and hydrochlorothiazide. The preoperative ECG is missing. The anaesthetic assessment only notes that it showed sinus rhythm.
Considering all the clinical information, interpret this ECG and outline the appropriate management of this patient in PACU.
General Anaesthesia and Sedation
Perioperative Medicine
Resuscitation Trauma and Crisis Management
SSU: Cardiac Surgery and Interventional Cardiology
66.8%
Not Started
Question 6
You will be anaesthetising a 63-year-old man with severe Parkinson’s disease who is booked for an inguinal hernia repair.
Discuss the issues that are relevant to providing perioperative care for this patient.
Perioperative Medicine
56.4%
Not Started
Question 7
Your department has exceeded its drug budget for the last financial year.
You have been asked to develop a departmental policy document for the rational use of sugammadex.
Discuss the issues to be considered.
Safety and Quality in Anaesthetic Practice
27.6%
Not Started
Question 8
A patient takes a 60mg slow-release morphine tablet twice daily for chronic low back pain. They have been appropriately investigated and there is no surgically treatable pathology.
In relation to this patient
List the risks of long-term opioid therapy. (30%)
Justify the appropriate treatment of chronic low back pain. (70%)
Pain Medicine
85.7%
Not Started
Question 9
Evaluate the equipment available for the delivery of oxygen to postoperative patients on a general surgical ward.

Airway Management
86.2%
Not Started
Question 10
List the signs of malignant hyperthermia. (30%)
Outline the immediate management of a patient where malignant hyperthermia is suspected. (70%)
General Anaesthesia and Sedation
Resuscitation Trauma and Crisis Management
67.3%
Not Started
Question 11
Discuss the issues relevant to the perioperative care of a seven-year-old child with Down Syndrome who has sustained a supracondylar fracture of the humerus.

SSU: Orthopaedic Surgery
SSU: Paediatric Anaesthesia
64.3%
Not Started
Question 12
A patient presents on the day of surgery with a blood pressure of 180/110mmHg.
Justify your decision to proceed with or postpone surgery for this patient.
Perioperative Medicine
25.5%
Not Started
Question 13
A 77-year-old patient is admitted to hospital with a fractured neck of femur requiring total hip arthroplasty. Physical examination on admission reveals signs of congestive cardiac failure.
Outline how congestive cardiac failure influences the perioperative risk for this patient. (30%)
Discuss how the finding of congestive cardiac failure influences your perioperative management of this patient. (70%)
Perioperative Medicine
SSU: Orthopaedic Surgery
84.2%
Not Started
Question 14
Discuss the options for anticoagulation management in the perioperative period for a patient taking warfarin for atrial fibrillation who requires a laparotomy for ischaemic bowel.

Perioperative Medicine
Resuscitation Trauma and Crisis Management
SSU: General Surgical Urological Gynaecological and Endoscopic Procedures
53.6%
Not Started
Question 15
Evaluate the use of five (5) of the following additives that may be combined with local anaesthetics for neural blockade.
adrenaline
clonidine
dexamethasone
glucose
hyaluronidase
midazolam
morphine
neostigmine
sodium bicarbonate
Regional and Local Anaesthesia
67.3%
Not Started
2020.2
15
Question 1
You are asked to assess and anaesthetise a 54-year-old patient for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. They received a heart transplant ten years ago.
Discuss the issues relevant for this patient.
General Anaesthesia and Sedation
Perioperative Medicine
61.6%
Not Started
Question 2
A 75-year-old man is scheduled for elective endovascular repair of a thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm.
List the potential complications of this procedure in this patient and discuss your strategies to mitigate these complications.
SSU: Vascular Surgery and Interventional Radiology
63.6%
Not Started
Question 3
A young adult male is assaulted and sustains a maxillary fracture. He is scheduled for an open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of the maxillary fracture on the emergency list.
Outline the relevant anaesthetic considerations.
SSU: Head and Neck ENT Dental Surgery and ECT
Resuscitation Trauma and Crisis Management
21.2%
Not Started
Question 4
Justify your choice and dosing of drugs when providing anaesthesia for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).
SSU: Head and Neck ENT Dental Surgery and ECT
58.6%
Not Started
Question 5
A patient with chronic liver disease requires gastroscopy for investigation of chronic anaemia.
A preoperative arterial blood gas (ABG) on room air demonstrates:
Interpret this ABG and list possible causes of hypoxia in this patient. (50%)
Justify your anaesthetic technique for gastroscopy in this patient. (50%)
General Anaesthesia and Sedation
Perioperative Medicine
47.5%
Not Started
Question 6
A 30-year-old woman at full term collapses in early labour and is unresponsive.
List the most likely causes of her collapse. (30%)
A presumptive diagnosis of amniotic fluid embolism is made. Describe the immediate and ongoing management of this patient. (70%)
Resuscitation Trauma and Crisis Management
SSU: Obstetric Anaesthesia and Analgesia
59.6%
Not Started
Question 7
An infant born at 30 weeks gestation is booked for repair of bilateral inguinal herniae at 46 weeks post-conceptual age.
Discuss the important issues when providing perioperative care for this infant.
SSU: Paediatric Anaesthesia
63.6%
Not Started
Question 8
A patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus requires urgent lower limb arterial bypass surgery. Their medications include dapagliflozin (a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor).
Outline your specific concerns and management of this patient for this procedure
Perioperative Medicine
50.5%
Not Started
Question 9
A patient with myasthenia gravis presents for emergency laparotomy for small bowel obstruction.
Discuss your perioperative management of this patient including your choice of anaesthetic.
General Anaesthesia and Sedation
Perioperative Medicine
60.6%
Not Started
Question 10
Outline the anatomical relations of the internal jugular veins highlighting how the left internal jugular vein differs from the right. (70%)
Describe how the anatomy relates to complications that may arise at the time of central venous cannulation. (30%)
General Anaesthesia and Sedation
32.3%